An earthquake is the result of a sudden emission of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are recorded with a seismometer. The moment magnitude of an earthquake is reported with magnitude three or lower earthquakes being mostly imperceptible and magnitude seven causing serious damage over large areas.

Earthquakes manifest themselves at the Earth’s surface by shaking and sometimes displacing the ground. When a large earthquake epicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami. The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger volcanic activity and landslides.

Earthquake word is used to describe any seismic event, whether it is a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans that produces seismic waves. Mostly earthquakes are caused by rupture of geological faults and also by landslides, volcanic activity, mine blasts and by nuclear experiments. An earthquake’s point of initial rupture is called its hypocenter or focus. The word epicenter refers to the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.

Earthquake fault types

There are three main types of fault that may cause an earthquake: reverse, normal and strike-slip. Examples of dip-slip are  normal and reverse faulting. Normal faults occur mainly in that areas where the crust is being extended like a divergent boundary. Whereas, reverse faults occur in areas where the crust is being shortened such as at a convergent boundary. Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other;  a particular type of strike-slip fault are transform boundaries.

I hope this article help you to understand about earthquake.